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Useful rules of thumb for assessing the significance of resistance-based moisture meters during site surveys are as follows:- 1.

Particular attention should be given to sources of concentrated moisture penetration such as roof drainage and ground drainage systems. Prolonged relative humidities of over 85% will result in bio deterioration. The significant factor is the partial water vapour pressure in the material or the available moisture.

Particular attention should also be given to defective drains, cavity ventilators, evaporative surfaces and structures. Vapour movement should be checked together with air movement from warm to cold or from wet to dry areas. In building surveying, a convenient approximation to available moisture is the timber equivalent moisture content (EMC) which may be defined as the moisture content that would be found in a piece of timber that was allowed to come into equilibrium with the material in question.

Slavish reliance on total moisture content as an indicator (e.g.

the 5% threshold estimate given in BS 6576 1985) is usually a mistake and experience shows such values are frequently misinterpreted.

The Speedy meter is of limited use because it can only determine total moisture content.

However, the results are obtained on site and are relatively accurate.

Condensation will often cause dampness that resembles rising dampness because heat rises leaving the base of walls preferentially cool.

Air circulation at the base of walls is often very slow. This results in a net increase in moisture content in the wall surfaces over time, however, the interior of the wall may be dry.

Condensation may occur at the internal surface of the wall or within the wall. Water soluble salts translocated to the wall surface by water penetration and evaporation over time will affect electrical conductance.

Generally, relative humidities over 70% in occupied buildings is likely to cause condensation if not vented to the exterior. In order to estimate the deep moisture content of materials with a resistance-based moisture meter, deep probe electrodes are required The readings from resistance-based moisture meters are commonly misinterpreted for the following reasons:- 1.

The limits of superficially measured wet or dry readings are not appreciated. Artificially high readings are taken due to conductive salts in the material. Artificially high readings are taken in timbers due to previous chemical treatments. Artificially high readings are recorded in composite materials, such as plywood, masonry containing carbon (e.g.

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